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Eye Disorders and Diseases

Eye health is an important factor affecting the quality of our lives. Our eyes are a vital tool for exploring our environment, gaining knowledge, interacting and performing activities of daily living. Good eye health allows us to have clear and sharp vision, ensure safety and improve our quality of life. At the same time, regular eye examinations for early diagnosis and prevention of eye diseases are of great importance for eye health.

How Are Eye Diseases Diagnosed?

 Symptoms such as blurred vision, severe eye pain, headache, nausea, redness and swelling of the eyes can be signs of an eye condition. For a correct diagnosis, it is important to determine the symptoms correctly and to perform the tests and controls performed by the ophthalmologist.

What Are The Most Common Eye Diseases?

  • Presbyopia
  • Hypermetropic
  • astigmatism
  • Myopic
  • Glaucoma (Eye Pressure)
  • Dry Eyes
  • Retinal Diseases
  • Corneal Diseases
  • Allergic
  • Strabismus
  • Color Blindness
  • Tear Tract Diseases
  • Cataract
  • Eyelid Diseases
  • Lazy Eye
  • Yellow point
  • Night Blindness

What Is a Cataract?

Cataract is also known as “curtain on the eye” among the people. It is an eye disease that occurs when the natural lens of the eye becomes dull and loses its transparency with various stains on its surface. In the initial stage of cataract, it manifests itself with symptoms such as blurring of near vision and fading in perceived colors. However, as the process progresses, problems in both near and far vision increase.

The only permanent method for cataract treatment is surgical operation. All methods other than surgery are aimed at slowing the progression of the disease and increasing the quality of life of the person a little more. Cataract surgery may be seen as an option when the disease begins to seriously affect a person’s living conditions.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is the process of replacing the patient’s natural intraocular lens with an artificial intraocular lens using various surgical methods. It is a microsurgical operation.

The operation begins with anesthetizing the eye with drop anesthesia. It is entered into the eye with the help of a micro incision made from the side of the eye. Cataracts are removed from the eye with various surgical methods. Finally, an artificial lens is placed in place of the intraocular lens through another incision and the operation is completed.

Intraocular Lens Operation With Phaco Method

The phaco method is one of the most applied surgical methods for permanent treatment. Cataract surgery with the phaco method is an operation that does not require stitches. Sound waves are used to separate the natural intraocular lens.

Recovery time after surgery is fast. The patient is discharged the same day after the operation. If necessary, the same procedure can be applied in the other eye with an interval of one day.

What Is Smart Lens? (Trifocal Intraocular Lens)

Smart lenses are trifocal intraocular lenses that are mostly used in the treatment of cataract patients over the age of 40, allowing patients to see far, near and intermediate distances clearly. After the operation, the need for the use of glasses is eliminated for the patients. Smart lenses are also known as trifocal lenses.

They can also be used for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism patients whose eye structures are not suitable for laser treatment.

What Are The Types of Multifocal Intraocular Lenses?

Monofocal lenses are lenses that allow us to see at a single viewing distance.
Bifocal lenses are lenses that help us see for near and far vision.

Multifocal lenses, that is, multifocal intraocular lenses, are lenses that allow us to see at close, far and intermediate distances. The type of lens called smart lens is trifocal lenses, also known as multifocals.

Toric Lenses are a kind of lenses suitable for patients with astigmatism.

Eye Laser Surgery

It is performed to eliminate myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and keratoconus problems in appropriate conditions. These treatments are also known as drawing eyes. These problems are among the health problems that complicate the daily life of individuals and can greatly reduce the opportunities of individuals to live on their own. These vision problems, which necessitate the use of contact lenses or glasses for healthy vision, reduce the comfort of life of people. The use of glasses in order for the person to continue his daily life can be an undesirable situation for many people.

Thanks to eye laser surgery technologies, which have become safer day by day with the technological developments in the field of medicine in the last 20-25 years, patients have a permanent alternative for the elimination of visual defects other than glasses or contact lenses. Many of these alternatives are popularly known as eye drawing surgery.

What Are The Types of Laser Treatments?

  • No Touch Laser (TranskPRK)
  • LASIK (excimer laser)
  • iLASIK (Intralase LASIK)
  • IPL Laser Treatment
  • Glaucoma Laser Treatment – ​​SLT
  • YAG Laser
  • Argon Laser

How Is Laser Eye Surgery Performed?

Although there are different applications for No touch laser, LASIK and iLASIK, popularly known as “eye drawing”, the general procedure is as follows:

  1. The patient enters the area where the operation will be performed and is allowed to lie on the laser bed on his back.
  2. The patient’s eye area is covered with a sterile drape, leaving one eye open.
  3. The eye is anesthetized with the drop anesthesia method.  The patient does not feel any pain during the procedure.
  4. If needed, the patient can be given a sedative to avoid getting excited during the procedure.
  5. The area around the eye, which is anesthetized by pouring drops, is thoroughly cleaned.
  6. The application can be done in two different eyes in a single day.
  7. A retractor is placed to keep the eyelid open during the operation and thus the operation is started.

The operating procedures differ for each type of treatment after the entry stage.
In the no touch laser application, laser treatment (eye drawing) is applied to the cornea area of ​​the patient for 50 seconds and one minute without any contact with the eye.
In the LASIK method, a corneal flap is created by means of a microkeratome. After the creation of the corneal frebe, an eye drawing operation is performed under the removed part.
In the ILASIK method, the incision required for LASIK is created with a computer system. Afterwards, laser beams are sent to the cornea and the treatment is performed. The patient is kept under observation for about half an hour after the surgery. Depending on the type of operation performed, blurred vision and stinging sensation may be experienced in the first few days. Patients do not need to stay in the hospital after the operation. Patients are discharged immediately within a few hours.

What Are The Post-Surgery Considerations?

  • Drops and medicines prescribed by the doctor should be used with care.
  • It is necessary not to hit the eye for a week and not to rub it with hard movements.
  • In the first month, sports activities should be done with protective glasses.
  • Water should not touch the operation area for a few days after the operation.
  •  It should be protected from UV light as much as possible, sunglasses should be used when the daylight is sharp.
  • Vehicles should not be used immediately after surgery.
  •  In the first week, especially strenuous work that requires effort should be avoided.
  • Regular check-ups should not be interrupted during the period specified by the doctor.

What Is Vitrectomy Surgery (Retina Surgery) ?

Vitrectomy surgery is an operation performed by entering the eye with the help of various micro-surgical instruments through incisions smaller than 1 mm in the white part of the eye, called the sclera, in order to eliminate various problems in the retina at the back of the eye and the vitreous covering the inside of the eye.
With vitrectomy, the vitreous fluid in the eye is removed and a special solution can be injected instead of the removed fluid, and various interventions can be made on the retina at the same time.

For problems involving the posterior region of the eye, posterior vitrectomy (pars plana vitrectomy) applied to this region is performed by retinal diseases specialists. In order to reduce various risks, vitrectomy operations applied to the anterior region due to eye trauma and various lens problems can be performed by ophthalmologists.

Why Is Vitrectomy Surgery Performed?

Vitrectomy surgery can be applied for many different reasons. In many cases where vitreous and retinal health is in danger, vitrectomy operation can be performed. The situations in which vitrectomy surgery is applied are as follows:

Diabetic retinopathy,
Removal of foreign body from the eye,
Vitreous Bleeding,
retinal detachment,
Retinal tears,
Macular hole,
Macula pucker,
Foreign body getting into the eye,
Infections in the eye after cataract and intraocular lens surgeries,
Epiretinal membrane,
Retinopathy of prematurity

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