MEDICAL ONCOLOGY

MEDICAL ONCOLOGY

It is a specialty area that uses all modern technology opportunities not only in the treatment of cancer patients, but also in cancer prevention, cancer screening and early diagnosis applications, and also prioritizes patient psychology.
Cancer treatment is a disease that requires more than one department to work together in the diagnosis and treatment process, that is, teamwork. This team collaborates with surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists and other relevant departments, and the approach to the patient is planned multidisciplinary in line with scientific data.
Oncology is an ancient Greek word formed by the combination of the words oncos ( = swelling, tumor) and logos ( = science) and can be explained as the science of tumors.

İletişime Geç

    Tumor Council

     A multidisciplinary treatment approach in the field of oncology is carried out with a tumor council.

      Tumor Council; radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgical units, internal units gather with the participation of physicians.

    The treatment process of the harvest is started when the patient’s treatment plan and processes are established by the tumor council and accepted by the patient.

     

    HOW IS THE TREATMENT METHOD DETERMINED?

    There are many factors that affect the form of treatment. At the beginning of these; the patient’s age, general health status, type of cancer diagnosed, prevalence, and location. Treatment decisions are made as a result of seeing and evaluating the patient together by specialist doctors from many different branches (Multidisciplinary approach).
    A separate diagnosis and treatment process is planned and implemented for each patient. Because even if people have the same type of cancer, the treatment of each patient should be evaluated according to their own circumstances.
    Treatment takes place in the form of a combination of drugs given intravenously or orally. However, this practice varies according to the type and stage of cancer.
    Treatment planning;
    – to the cell type detected in the pathology of cancer
    -the organ where the cancer started
    – It varies according to the region where it spreads.
    Adjuvant therapy; to reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease.
    Neoadjuvant therapy; to make the mass suitable for operation or to protect the organ
    Palliative treatment is applied palliatively to prolong life and improve quality of life in advanced disease.
    These Treatments can be planned alone or in combination.

    WHAT METHODS DOES MEDICAL ONCOLOGY PLAN TREATMENT?

    CHEMOTHERAPY (DRUG THERAPY

    The aim of chemotherapy is to destroy cancer cells that grow uncontrollably. For this, it is aimed to kill the cancer cell by administering several drugs with different mechanisms of action to the patient.

    HORMONE THERAPY

    Hormonal drugs are used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive tumors such as prostate and breast cancer.

    By stimulating the body’s defense system, substances naturally produced by the immune system are used to recognize and kill cancer cells.

    TARGETED BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

    Biological therapies, which are determined by identifying targets carried by cancer cells but not found in normal cells, are applied in many types of cancer, especially in breast cancer, intestinal cancer, renal cell (kidney) cancers.

     

    Frequently Asked Questions

    The diagnosis of cancer is usually made using a series of tests and imaging methods. Blood tests, biopsies, X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and other methods are used to detect cancer. Medical oncologists evaluate this data to make an accurate diagnosis.

    The treatment methods used in cancer can vary depending on the type and stage of the disease and the patient’s condition. Different methods such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies are used to control or eliminate cancer.

    The side effects that patients may experience during cancer treatment vary depending on the treatment method and the individual’s response. Side effects such as fatigue, hair loss, nausea, and weakened immune system may occur. Medical oncologists provide support to help patients cope with these side effects.

    Healthy lifestyle choices are essential in reducing the risk of cancer. Regular exercise, balanced nutrition, avoiding smoking and alcohol consumption can help reduce the risk of cancer. Additionally, regular health check-ups can increase the chances of early detection and treatment of cancer.

    WHAT TYPES OF CANCER ARE TREATED WITH MEDICAL ONCOLOGY?

    Breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, pancreatic cancer, liver cancers, gallbladder and tract cancers, head and neck tumors, osteosarcoma and soft tissue sarcomas, brain tumors, kidney – bladder cancers, prostate cancer, malignant melanoma, thyroid cancer Many cancer types such as ovarian (ovarian) cancer, cervix (cervical) cancer, endometrium (uterus) cancer, testicular cancer, lymphomas, multiple myeloma can be treated with medical oncology methods.

    RADIOTHERAPY (RAY THERAPY)

    What is the Effect of Radiotherapy?

    The rays used in radiotherapy affect the DNA in the cell nuclei of tumor tissues. When the DNA in the cell nucleus is damaged enough, cells lose their ability to reproduce.
    The high dose of radiation given during the radiotherapy session kills the cells or prevents them from multiplying. Since tumor cells divide faster than most normal cells, radiotherapy kills these cells at a high rate.

    RADIOSURGERY

    The main purpose of radiosurgery, which is one of the application areas of radiation oncology; it is to direct a large number of low-energy beams to the diseased area and focus on the diseased point and create a change in the tissue by providing high energy only at this point.
    Thus, by giving intense radiation to the diseased area, cancer cells shrink or die, while the surrounding normal tissues are protected from the harmful effects of radiation.

     

    EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF CANCER

    Check-up programs

    In addition to the patient’s gender, age, metabolic status, body functions, risk factors for heart diseases, all necessary tests are performed for early diagnosis of cancer.
    Scientifically accepted, detailed laboratory and radiological examinations (lung tomography, abdominal and brain MRI) and urology, gynecology and obstetrics, breast examination, mammography, ultrasound examinations, dermatology (examination of moles on the body) and ENT examinations for the onset or diagnosis of cancer includes examinations such as neurology exams. Pre-cancerous lesions detected during these scans are followed closely and these tumors are successfully treated before they spread.
    Are Tumor Markers (Onco-markers) Useful in Cancer Screening?
    Cancer markers are usually substances in the structure of enzymes, proteins, antigens or hormones that can be used for screening, diagnosis, classification of cancer, its response to treatment and whether it has recurred.

    The most commonly used cancer markers are:

    ⎫ PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen) prostate cancer),
    ⎫ CA 125 (ovarian and uterine cancers, peritoneal cancer),
    ⎫ CA 15-3 (breast cancer)
    ⎫ CA 19-9 (pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, stomach cancer, biliary tract cancer, esophageal cancer)
    ⎫ CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) colon cancer, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, biliary tract cancer, pancreatic cancer, some ovarian cancer,
    ⎫ HCG (Chorionic Gonadotropin) Trophoblastic tumor and testicular tumors)
    ⎫ veAFP (testicular cancers, some ovarian cancers and liver cancer)

     

    How Are Hereditary (Hereditary) Cancer Genetic Tests Performed?

    It has been shown that cancer is caused by certain changes in genes.
    These gene changes are mostly the result of the chemicals that the person is exposed to in the genetic structure, the radiation, the sun and the habits such as cigarettes.
    Some of these gene changes are also inherited, meaning that the person may have inherited genes that make them more susceptible to cancer from their family. As a result, these changes in the gene structure of the person disrupt the mechanisms of cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death, and cancer occurs when the cells begin to multiply uncontrollably.
    With OnkoGenetics Hereditary Cancer Panel, 275 genes (APC, ATM, BMPR1A, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CDH1, CDK4, CDKN2A, CHEK2, EPCAM, MEN1, MET, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PAL) It can be determined whether it carries mutations that may be associated with it. In particular, the BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Analysis test specifically evaluates the risks of patients with a family history of breast and ovarian cancer.

    Who is recommended for hereditary (hereditary) cancer genetic test?

    • Those who have first-degree relatives diagnosed with cancer,
    • Those who have two or more relatives diagnosed with cancer in the family,
    • Those under the age of 50 whose family member has been diagnosed with cancer,
    • In cases where various members of the family have the same type of cancer,
    • In cases where there is more than one type of cancer in the same individual,
    • People with a rare type of cancer in one or more members of the family

    What is the Role of Colonoscopy in Cancer Test?

    As a general approach, control colonoscopy is recommended for all men or women aged 50 years or older, whether or not they have occult blood in their stool. It is recommended that people with a family history of colon cancer have a control colonoscopy before the age of 40. Gastroenterology specialists decide how often colonoscopy should be checked according to the results of the pathology and the patient’s family history. In the pathological examination of the removed polyps, if there are those with a high risk of cancer among these polyps, the patient is taken to closer colonoscopy follow-ups. Thus, this situation, which can potentially create a cancer risk in the future, is eliminated.

     
     

    PROTECTION FROM CANSER

    Smoking Should Be Avoided

    There are over 4000 harmful chemicals in cigarettes. These chemicals damage DNA, causing changes in important genes. Cancer cells develop in the body and multiply rapidly and uncontrollably, causing cancer. Lung, ovarian cancers, some types of leukemia, mouth, larynx, upper pharynx, nose and sinuses, esophagus, liver, pancreas, stomach, kidney, bladder, uterus and bowel cancers are directly related to smoking.

    Sugar Should Earned From Natural Foods

    All cells in the body, including cancer cells, need sugar. Excess weight caused by sugar, fat around the waist and obesity are among the most important factors that trigger cancer. Sugar should be obtained from vegetables and fruits. Children should be given healthy eating habits from a young age and healthy snacks should be encouraged. Consumption of high-fat and sugary foods has been proven to be associated with cancer. Sugary foods also increase inflammation in the body. Inflammation, which is the root of cancer, also causes cancer cells to multiply.

    Avoiding Fatty Foods

    Fried foods, fatty meats and other high-fat foods should be consumed less. At least 5 fruits and vegetables should be eaten a day, especially green leafy and high vitamin C foods, citrus fruits should be consumed. Cereals such as oats and fish should be consumed twice a week. In addition, those who have cancer cases in their families should not neglect their regular screenings as well as paying attention to their nutrition.

    An Active Lifestyle Should Be Adopted

    Exercise reduces the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, blood pressure and heart diseases. Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer by positively affecting metabolism, strengthening the immune system, eliminating excess weight and reducing stress. Metabolic problems, weakening of the immune system and being overweight are among the main causes of cancer. The children of our age are very inactive, instead of playing in the parks and gardens, they sit in front of the television, computer or tablet. By walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week, the risk of colon cancer and breast cancer can be reduced by 30-40 percent.

    Vegetables And Fruits Should Be Washed Well

    Washing vegetables and fruits well, keeping them in salty and vinegary water is very important in purifying food chemicals/medicine.

    Electronic Devices

    According to a comprehensive study by the World Health Organization, involving 31 scientists from 14 countries, mobile phones increase the risk of brain cancer. In the study, it is stated that the risk of formation of glioma, a brain cancer tumor, increases with the use of a wireless system, while using a mobile phone, it is recommended to use headphones and not to sleep by placing the phone under the pillow or on the bedside.

    Avoiding Stress

    It has also been scientifically proven that many types of cancer, intestinal diseases, blood pressure, diabetes and heart diseases are related to stress. In order to prevent cancer and other diseases, it is important to learn to fight and experience stress a little less. Stress can be reduced by using methods such as physical activity, exercise, meditation, yoga, and music therapy.

    Precautions Should Be Taken Against Obesity

    Overweight and obese people have an increased risk of breast cancer, bowel cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, prostate cancer, stomach cancer and gallbladder cancer, especially after menopause. Studies show that overweight and obesity trigger cancer. High levels of some of these hormones, including estrogen and insulin, can increase the risk of certain cancers. Studies show that obesity and lack of physical activity increase the risk of developing breast, colon and esophageal cancers by 20-25 percent. Obesity also increases the risk of liver and uterine cancer by 20-30 percent.

    Sleeping Regularly

    Irregular and poor quality sleep negatively affects hormones and metabolism. During sleep, many hormones are secreted that are beneficial for the body. Sleep disorders can increase the risk of cancer, as well as triggering many physical and mental illnesses.

    Being Carefully From The Containers Used in Microwave Ovens.

    It is claimed that microwaves disrupt the structure of food and significantly reduce the nutritional value of food. Thus, the value of vitamins taken into the body is damaged or changed. This can lead to cancer over time. When using the microwave oven, special attention should be paid to the utensils used in the microwave oven.

    Avoiding The Sun Between 11:00 am and 04:00 pm

    The sun increases the risk of skin cancer. It is especially useful not to go out in the sun between 11:00-16:00 when the sun’s rays are very intense and have a carcinogenic effect. It is important to use sunscreens with a high protection factor suitable for your skin type.

    Avoid Using Worn Pans.

    It is useful not to use old, scratched Teflon pans. However, it is stated that there is no risk in pans produced in high quality, high standards.

    Using Glass or wooden kitchen materials

    Plastic contains carcinogenic substances. Instead, glass or wooden products should be used. But there are now very high quality plastic products that can putted in the oven or even the microwave.

     

     

     

     

     

    Neden Ardini Clinic

    Ardini Clinic 10+ Yıllık tecrübesi ve alanında uzman doktorları ile sektördeki lider konumunu korumaktadır. Plastik Cerrahi, Diş Estetiği ve Tedavileri, Saç Ekimi alanlarında birçok operasyonu uzman hekimler eşliğinde gerçekleştirmektedir.

    01
    Gradation Image

    ADIM 1

    Vip araçlar ve Tercuman ekibi ile havalimanından otel transferi
    02
    Gradation Image

    ADIM 2

    Doktor tarafından yüzyüze konsültasyon ve müdahale
    03
    Gradation Image

    ADIM 3

    5 Yıldızlı otellerde konforlu konaklama veağırlama
    04
    Gradation Image

    ADIM 4

    Tedavinizin ardından doktorlarımız tarafından kontrol ve havalimanı transferi

    Kliniklerimiz / Hastanelerimiz

    Sizi Arayalım

    Aşağıdaki formu doldurarak müşteri hizmetleri uzmanlarımızın sizi arayarak bilgilendirme yapmasını sağlayabilirsiniz